# Hoya single vision plastic lens

ATM Letters report you all about telescope making written from ATM to ATM. Each issue includes a lot of programs, designed to allow you to quickly and easy evaluate the performance of telescope systems, designed to be simple and intuitive to use and will help you become an optical expert and make sense to you. Handbook of Optical Fibers and Cables, Hiroshi Murata 16.

Optical Methods of Measurement: W holefield Techniques, Rajpal S. Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications, edited by Edmond J. Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, edited by Robert K. It is a telescope design software of the most popular telescope systems used by the amateur astronomers and telescope makers, including spot diagrams, ray fans, wave aberrations, diffraction analysis, optical layout, optimization, tolerancing, mirror testing and many other atm tools. First released 1999, today MODAS is the most popular telescope design package used by the telescope makers around the world. JODAS stands for Java Optical Design and Analysis Software and it is based on MODAS. Laser Spectroscopy and Its Applications, edited by Leon J. A/R is the factor most likely to affect delivery speed, so if your order is a rush please call us in advance at 425-739-6501 with any questions. If after hitting the "SUBMIT" button, nothing seems to happen, check the RED labeled boxes for missing information.Successful orders will receive a confirmation message.With this java applets collection you can design and analyze one mirror (Newtonian) and classical two mirror telescopes (Cassegrain, Gregorian, Dall-Kirkham, Pressmann-Camichel, Ritchey-Chretien), one mirror catadioptric systems (Houghton-, Schmidt- and Maksutov- Cameras), two mirror catadioptric systems (Houghton-, Schmidt- and Maksutov- Cassegrain), Doublets and Triplets.

Easy design and plan of the most popular dials, including equation of time and analemma calculations, location data base with over 500 cities world wide, many export features like saving tabular data to MS-Excel, saving all graphics as BMP, GIF, TIF, JPG, WMF, GIF Animation, a lot of customizing features of dial plates.keywords: telescope optical design optics optician software freeware services source code excel visual basic applications java scripts applets cgi borland turbo pascal delphi kylix c builder visual basic vba c# php mysql dos windows linux susse apple redhat astronomy ray trace raytrace raytracing spot diagram aberration seidel third order spherical coma astigmatism distortion chromatism spherochromatism opd optical path diference encircled ensquared fft psf mtf otf optimization optimize global local merit function damped least square dlsq lsq tolerance layout telescope refractor objective doublet achromatic aplanatic cemented broken airspaced fraunhofer steinheil clark triplet christen glass schott **hoya** hikari ohara sumita corning gost lzos reflector mirror sphere ellipsoid prolate oblate paraboloid hyperboloid toroid mangin one mirror newtonian dob dobson dobsonian two mirror cassegrain gregorian ritchey-chretien dall-kirkham pressmann-camichel schwarzschild three mirror loveday picht catadioptric camera maksutov schmidt baker wright sigler gregory simak rumak relay wright lurie houghton loveday tct tilted brachyt shiefspiegler yolo off-axis stevick stevick-paul brunn kutter buchroeder herschel schupmann herrig focal corrector extender reducer flattener plate **lens** menisc meniscus barlow ross winn bird brixner eyepices huygenian abbe ramsden kellner erfle plssl ploessl knig koenig ortoscopic amateur astronomer telescope maker atm atm's modas jodas eodas sundi myoptics my optics ivan krastev oslo zemax sigma vob code v optix optalix lensview winlens asap synopsis raycad opticad optikwerks winlens winspot optec optica opticalc lensview atmos winspot dboptic opus autoray ados kdp roadrunner aberrator test startest grid terebizh ronchi mosby null inverse wire foucault knife edge milles-lacroix sinnott texerau book article magazine journal letters atmj atmlj sky & telescope skywatch amateurastronomy coelum applied optics josa sterne und weltraum starobserver glossary: 1/2 1/3 1/4 96% a/d abbe abrasive achromat accumulate actual adaptation adu afocal aid air airy algorithm alignment alt-az altaz altazimuth alumina aluminim aluminium aluminizing alumosilicate amateur anastigmatic angle annealing anti-blooming aperture aplanatic apo apochromat apparent approach arc of contact arm array ascension aspheric assembly astigmatism astrophotography autoguider averted axe back barber barlow barrel belt bertele bfl binning bino binocular bioactive bird bit bk7 blast bond boring boron borosilicate brandon brightness brixner brush butt bvc camera cap code capacity carbide cass cassegrain casting catadioptric cbn ccd cell cemented centerless center-over-center centerline cerium cervit charget chatter chief chordal chromatic circles classes classic classical cleaning clear clock cmos cmyk coat coated collimation collodion color combine component compound conditioning confusion contrast converter coordinate correction corrector couder crayford criterion criterion cross crown current curvature curvature of dall dark data dawes ddp declination deconvolution deep depending depth dew diagonal dialsight difference diffraction digitaldilworth disk dispersion dissipation distortion dob dobson dobsonian doublet download drag & drop dressing drilling drive dust dusting dynamic ed effect efficiency efl emery encircled energy english ensquared entrance entropy equatorial erfle error exit expansion exposure eye eyepiece f.e.p.a. Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors: Theory and Methods, Calvin M.

Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications, Edward Colletf 37.

Organic Photoreceptors for Imaging Systems, Paul M. Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices, edited by Akis P. Thin Films for Optical Systems, edited by Fran Gois R.

fast fastar fever fft field of figuring filter finder fine fine finish flat flattener flourite fluoride f-number focal focus focuser fork form foucault frame france free french friabilty full fully function furie fused silica gain galilean galoc garnet gaussian gaviola gem geometrical german ghost glass go-to goto grade gradient grain grains graphical g-ratio gregorian gregory grinder grinding grit guiding guiding heat helical hexapolar histogram hogging honeycomb honing hopping horseshoe houghton huygenian huygens hyperstar id images images imaging immersion incidance indes interference intermediate internal jig joint jones jumbo kalliscopic kellner kellner kernel kidney-bean koehler koenig knig lanthanum lap lapping lateral lead least length *lens* limit limited limiting line loading longitudinal low-reflection lpr lrgb lurie lv ma machine machining magnification magnifier magnitude mak making maksutov marginal mask mass masuyama maximum median meniskus meridional metal microfacet micron mirror mittenzwey modified modiulation monocentric monocentric monocular mosaic mosby mot mounting mtf multicoated nagler narrowband newton newtonian night noise nonwoven null number object objective oblique obstruction od off hand off-axis olishing on top one-shot open opera optical optics orthoscopic orthoscopic ota oxide panoptic parabolic paraboloid paraxial paries path pec pedestal periodic photosite piggyback pincushion pinion pitch pixel plane plate plossl plunge polar pole polishing powders power primary prime prism psf pupil pyrex quantum quarter-wave quartz rack radian ramsden range ransfer ratio rayleigh rayleigh readout real rectilinea reducers reduction reflector reflex refractor refractorholism refractoritis reinforcing relief resolution resolution resolving response reticle rgb right rings ritchey-chretien roc roll room ross rouge rough rtv sagitta sagittal sampling scale scaling schiefspiegler schmidt schott schwarzschild scidmore scope scratch sct secondary seeing self-guiding semi separated setting sharpening sic sic sidereal sight silica silicon silvering *singlet* size sky sleek sma societies soda-lime spaced speed speers-waler spherical spherochromatism spider spot spread squares star steinheil stevick-paul strehl stroke structure subtract summing super superabrasives surface symmetrical system tangential tct telecompressor telescope telescope nut telextender telrad temperature test testing tex thermal thickness tilted tissue tn tolles tool on top tot total track transfer transformation transmission transparency trepanning triangular tri-color triplet trischiefspigler truss tube ultima ultra ultrascopic unguided unit unsharp vibration view viewer *vision* vulcanizing washing waterproof wavelength w-center w-edge wet wheel wide wignetting wild wipe w-normal work workshop w-stroke wynne yoke yolo zero zerodur zirconia zirconium zoom Index: abbe prisms, abbe sine condition, abbe v- number, aberrations, astigmatism and field curvature, balancing, chromatic, coma, correction of, distortion, *lens* shape and stop position effect on, measurement of, optical computations for, optical path difference, point spread functions for, and ray intercept curves, residual, seidel, spherical, third-order, tolerances for, variation with aperture and field, zonal absorption, absorption filters, acceptance cones, accommodation, achromatic doublets, achromatic prisms, achromatic *singlets*, achromatic telescope objectives, design forms, thin-*lens* theory for, additive tolerances, aerial image modulation (aim) curves, afocal attachments, afocal systems, airspaced achromats, airspaced anastigmats, airspaced triplets, airy disks, alignment telescopes, alternate *lenses* in zoom systems, amici objective, amici prisms, anamorphic systems, angles, of diffraction, of incidence, of prisms, of refraction, subtended, angstroms, angular aberrations, angular blur, angular depth of focus, angular dispersion, angular field of view, angular motion detection, angular resolution limits, angulon design, aniseikonina, antireflection coatings, apertures, aberration effects of, diffraction effects of, in galilean telescopes, and image illumination, in meniscus anastigmats, in meniscus camera *lens*, and optical invariant, apertures (cont.), and pupils, and sagittal coma, and vignetting, aplanatic optical systems, aplanatic surfaces and fronts, apochromatic *lenses*, doublets, triplets, apodization, apparent angular field of view, apparent thickness, apparent width, aqueous humor, arc-lamp motion picture projectors, aspheric correctors, aspheric surfaces, fabricating, general and skew rays on, in meniscus camera *lens*, *plastic* for, for residual aberrations, in third-order aberrations, astigmatism, computations for, in cooke triplets, in eyes, and field angle, manual correction of, in plane parallel plates, with point spread functions, in reflecting systems, astronomical telescopes, athermalization, autocollimating microscopes, automatic computer design, aviar *lenses*, axial gradients, back focal length, calculation of, and optical invariant, of two-component systems, in zoom systems, baffles, baker-nunn satellite tracking cameras, balsam cement, bandpass filters, bang-bang zooms, bar targets, barium crowns and flints, barrel distortion, beaded screens, beam power, beam splitter prisms, beam truncation, beam waists, bell centering, bench collimators, binary surfaces, binocular field of *vision*, binocular *vision*, lack of, binoculars, biocular systems, iotar objectives, blackbody radiation, blanks, blind spot, blocking, blue optical glass filters, blur and blur sizes, with mangin mirrors, rapid estimation of, in reflecting systems, with spherical aberrations, borosilicate glasses, bouwers system, brashear-hastings prisms, brass gages, bravais system, brewsters angle, brightness, conservation of, telescope, units for, in visual acuity, broad-band coating, broken ring test, canada balsam, cancellation of waves, candle power of searchlights, candles, cardinal points, cassegrain systems, benefits of, conic sections in, focal length in, schmidt, catadioptric systems, cataracts, cauchy dispersion equation, cemented doublets, cemented quadruplets, cemented triplets, cements, center-of-curvature tests, centering, central negative doublets, central obscuration, chief rays, chromatic aberrations, in blur, in bouwers system, computations for, in condenser systems, in cooke triplets, in eye, in eyepieces, in *lens* design, manual correction of, in plane parallel plates, in prisms, rayleigh limit in, residuals in, in schmidt systems, in symmetrical principle, in telescope objectives, in visual acuity, chromatic difference of magnification, circular polarizers, cladding in fiber optics, closing equations, coatings, coddingtons equations, coherent illumination, mtf with, cold mirrors, cold stops, collimators, color in cooke triplets, color temperature in blackbody radiation, coma aberration, computations for, in cooke triplets, in diffractive surface design, in eyepieces, and field angle, and *lens* shape, with mangin mirrors, manual correction of, in plane parallel plates, with point spread functions, rayleigh limit in, in reflecting systems, in symmetrical principle, in telescope objectives, communications, fiber optics for, comparison photometry, compensating eyepieces, compound microscopes, computer-controlled polishers, computer design, concave *lenses*, wave fronts affected by, concave radius, in microscope objectives, in unknown optics analysis, concentric bouwers, condenser systems, cone channel condensers, cones, conic sections, conjugates, conrady dispersion equation, conservation of radiance, constant-deviation prisms, contact *lenses*, contrast sensitivity, contrast transfer function, convergence, convex *lenses*, wave fronts affected by, convex radius in microscope objectives, cooke triplet anastigmats, element shape solutions in, glass choice in, with high-index crowns, initial aberration values in, power and spacing solutions in, cooling process, corneas, cosine-to-the-fourth, cover glass in microscopes, critical angle in prisms, crown glasses, in cooke triplets, in meniscus anastigmats, in meniscus camera *lenses*, in petzval *lenses*, in telescope objectives, crystalline materials, cup centering, curvature, coddingtons equations for, computations for, in meniscus camera *lenses*, in paraxial raytracing, petzval (see petzval curvature) in thin *lenses*, curves in design, cutoff frequencies, cylinder *lenses*, cylindrical surfaces, dagors, dall-kirkham system, damped least squares, dark adaptation, data transmission, fiber optics for, defects, eye, density, of optical glass, in transmission calculations, depolarizers, depth of field, depth of focus, derotation prisms, detector optics, deviation, in centering, in prisms, dialyte achromats, diamond turning, dichroics, dielectric reflection, diffraction, of apertures, of gaussian beams, diffraction efficiency, diffraction grating, diffraction-limited systems, diffractive surfaces, achromatic diffractive *singlets*, apochromatic diffractive doublets, diffraction efficiency in, manufacturability of, sweatt model for, diffuse sources, irradiance from, diffusing materials, dimensions for prisms, diopter adjustments, diopter gages, diopters, direct *vision* prisms, direction cosines, dispersing prisms, dispersion, in fiber optics, in prisms, relative, distances, eye judgment of, with microscopes, rangefinders for, distortion, computations for, in cooke triplets, distortion (cont.), in eyepieces, keystone, in *lens* design, manual correction of, measurement of, in symmetrical principle, dogmar anastigmats, double-gauss designs, anastigmats, camera *lens*, high-index crowns, high-speed *lenses*, split-rear crowns, doublet magnifiers, doublet telescope objectives, dove prisms, dutch telescopes, effective clear aperture, effective focal length (efl), calculation of, and optical invariant, in zoom systems, electromagnetic spectrum, electronic computer design, element shape solutions, ellipsoidal mirrors, in arc-lamp motion picture projectors, manufacturing, for reflecting systems, emissivity, empty magnification, endoscopes, enlarger *lenses*, entrance pupils, entrance windows, equiconcave and equiconvex elements, equivalent air paths, equivalent air thickness, erecting prism systems, erecting telescopes, erfle eyepieces, exit pupils, in magnifiers, in optical devices, in telescopes, exit windows, xpress *lenses*, extended objects, eye relief, eyelenses, in microscopes, in telescopes, eyepieces (see telescope systems and eyepieces) eyes, defects of, in optical design, sensitivity of, structure of, visual acuity of, f-numbers, f-theta laser scanning *lenses*, farsightedness, fasteners, fiber optics, for communications, gradient, field, aberration variation with, field coverage, field curvature, coddingtons equations for, computations for, in meniscus camera *lenses*, field flatteners, field *lenses*, light pipes for, in radiometers, field of view, in field *lenses*, in galilean telescopes, field of *vision*, field stops, fifth-order aberrations, filters, absorption, interference, photographic density of, spatial, thin-film coatings, first-surface mirrors, fish-eye *lenses*, fitting operations, flashed opal, flat-field microscope objectives, flint glasses, in cooke triplets, in meniscus anastigmats, in petzval *lenses*, in telescope objectives, float glass, focal collimators, focal lengths, in anamorphic systems, in cassegrain mirror systems, focal lengths (cont.), coddingtons equations for, in compound microscopes, measurement of, and optical invariant, in reflecting systems, in telescopes, of thin *lenses*, in two-component systems, in zoom systems, focal points, in image formation, in telescopes, focus, in anamorphic systems, depth of, of eyepieces, in optical path difference, in zoom systems, foot-lamberts, foucault test, fourier transform *lenses*, fovea, fraunhofer form, frequency, frequency distribution curves, frequency response in mtf, fresnel *lenses*, *plastics* for, in rangefinders, fresnel reflection, fresnel surfaces, front focal length (ffl), front focus distance (ffd), front meniscus camera *lenses*, fused fibers, fused quartz glass, g-sums, gain of projection screens, galilean telescopes, in anamorphic systems, aperture stops in, field of view in, gamma radiation, gastroscopes, gauss form, in *lens* design, in telescope objectives, gaussian beams, diffraction of, gaussian optics, gelatin filters, general and skew ray computations, aspheric surfaces, spherical surfaces, generalized design technique, aberration balancing in, manual correction in, residual reduction in, trigonometric correction in, generating process, geneva *lens* gages, geometric image energy distribution, geometric spot size, geometrical modulation transfer factor, germanium ir design, glare stops, glass fibers, glass filters, glass molding, glasses (see optical glass) goerz dagors, goerz prisms, gradient index fibers, gradient index glasses, graphical raytracing, gray-bodies, green optical glass filters, gregorian telescopic system, grin rods, grinding, half-field angles in radiometers, hartmann dispersion equation, heat-absorbing glasses, height, for objects at infinity, in raytracing, hektor anastigmats, heliar anastigmats, hemispheres, radiation into, herzberger dispersion equation, high-power microscope objectives, high-speed processing, higher-efficiency coating, higher-order aberrations, hot mirrors, huygenian eyepieces, huygens principle, hyperboloids, hyperfocal distance, hypergon *lenses*, hyperopia, illumination, and apertures, of natural sources, illumination (cont.), in photometry, units for, in visual acuity, illumination devices, integrating spheres, light pipes in, projection condensers, searchlights, telescope brightness, image evaluation, geometric spot size, image energy distribution, modulation transfer function, computation of, diffraction-limited systems, optical path difference, point spread functions for, radial energy distribution, spread functions for, tolerances in, image formation, cardinal points in, focal points and principal points in, light ray refraction in, matrix optics in, mirrors in, optical invariant in, paraxial raytracing in, paraxial region in, position in, scheimpflug condition in, separated component systems in, sign conventions in, size in, thin *lenses* in, y-ybar diagrams in, image height, objects at infinity, in paraxial raytracing, images, evaluating (see image evaluation) forming (see image formation) illumination of, orientation of, in prism systems, radiometry of, immersion *lenses*, immersion objectives, index dispersion, index-slope angle products, indexes, of eye surfaces, of *lenses* in paraxial raytracing, indexes (cont.), of prisms, of refraction, and dispersion, importance of, for mirrored surfaces, test for, infinite conjugates, infinity, height for objects at, infinity f-numbers, infrared region, infrared transmitting glasses, instrument myopia, integrating spheres, intensity, in photometry, in radiometry, intercept length for mirrored surfaces, interference, interference coatings, interference filters, interferometers, internal transmittance, intersection coordinates for skew rays, inverse dall-kirkham system, inverse square law, inversion prisms, inverting telescopes, ir cooke triplet, ir telescope, iris, irradiance, from diffuse sources, in photometry, in radiometry, iterative technique, johnsons law, k-mirrors, kellner eyepieces, kepler telescopes, keratoconus, kettler-drude dispersion equation, keystone distortion, kinematic mounts, kinoforms, knife-edge scans, knife-edge test, knife-edge traces, knoop hardness, koehler projection condensers, koenig prisms, lagrange invariant, lambertian diffusers, lamberts, lamberts law, landolt broken ring test, laser ablation, laser beam diffraction, laser beam expanders, laser diodes, laser disk objectives, laser rangefinders, lasik, lateral aberrations, lateral magnification, law of refraction, laws of probability, leman prisms, *lens* bench collimators, *lens* benches, *lens* shape effect on aberrations, *lenses*, designs for, automatic, sample, mounts for, power of, in unknown optics analysis, wave fronts affected by, lenticular screens, licht-sprechers, light pipes, light wave propagation, line images, line spread functions, linear aberrations, linear blur, linear dimensions in computations, linear kinoform surfaces, linear resolution, liquids, long-pass transmission filters, longitudinal departure, longitudinal magnification, longitudinal spherical aberrations, lord rayleighs criterion, low-expansion glasses, low-index, broadband cooke triplets, low-index glass, low-power microscope objectives, low-reflection coatings, lumens, luminous radiation, lyot stops, index magnetorheologic polishing, magnification, in anamorphic systems, in microscopes, in telescopes, magnifiers,, maksutov system, mangin mirrors, manual aberration correction, marechal criterion, materials, in design, in optical manufacture, specifications and tolerances for, matrix optics, measurements, aberration, focal length, modulation transfer function, telescopic power, medium-power microscope objectives, melt fits, meniscus forms, camera *lens*, in design, focal points in, inner crown, for photographic objectives, in residual aberrations, meridional rays and planes, merit function, merte effect, merte surfaces, mesopic curve, micrometers, microns, microscopes and microscope objectives, aplanatic surfaces in, autocollimating, compound, flat-field, high-power, low-power, medium-power, rayleigh limit in, reflecting, simple, millimicrons, minifiers, minimum deviation of prisms, mirrors, ellipsoidal, in image formation, mangin, mounting, plane, semireflecting, spherical, modified amici prisms, modulation transfer function (mtf), with coherent and semi-coherent illumination, computation of, diffraction-limited systems in, measurement of, motion, magnification of, mounting techniques, multilayer coatings, myopia, nanometers, narrow bandpass filters, natural stop positions, nearsightedness, negative magnification, negative outer meniscus elements, newtons black spot, newtons rings, nicol prisms, night myopia, nodal points, nodal slides, nonbrowning glasses, nonspherical surfaces, null *lenses*, numerical aperture (na), in fiber optics, in illumination for mtf, objective *lenses* and systems, in microscopes, photographic (see photographic objectives) in telescopes, testing, offense against sine condition (osc), oil-immersion microscopes, old schott dispersion equation, diopter prisms, opal glass, opening equations, optic nerve, optical axes, optical coatings, optical computations, aberration, coddingtons equations, general and skew rays, aspheric surfaces, spherical surfaces, meridional rays, paraxial rays, optical contact method, optical devices, anamorphic systems, compound microscopes, diffractive surfaces, exit pupils, eyes, and resolution in, fiber optics, field *lenses* and relay systems, radiometers and detector optics, rangefinders, simple microscopes and magnifiers, telescopes, variable-power systems, optical glass, in cooke triplets, gradient index, infrared transmitting, low-expansion, in meniscus anastigmats, in meniscus camera *lenses*, in petzval *lenses*, in telescope objectives, optical invariant, optical laboratory practice, aberration measurement, focal length measurement, foucault test, *lens* benches, modulation transfer function measurement, resolution tests, schlieren test, star test, telescopic power measurement, unknown optics analysis, optical manufacture, blocking, centering, grinding, optical manufacture (cont.), high-speed processing, materials, nonspherical surfaces, polishing, rough shaping, *single*-point diamond turning, optical mounting techniques, optical path difference (opd), for aberration measurements, computations for, focus shift in, in ray intercept plots, rms, spherical aberration in, optical path length, optical specifications and tolerances, additive, centering, materials, prism dimensions and angles, surface accuracy, surface quality, thickness, optical systems, resolution of, optical systems design, achromatic telescope objectives, cooke triplet anastigmats, diffractive surfaces, by electronic computer, generalized design technique, practical considerations in, simple meniscus camera *lens*, symmetrical principle in, optical transfer function (otf), orders of aberrations, orientation in prism systems, orthometar *lenses*, orthoscopic eyepieces, osc aberration computations, overcorrected astigmatism, overcorrected distortion, overcorrected spherical aberration, overspecification, paraboloidal mirrors, blur size estimation in, manufacturing, in reflecting systems, paraxial rays, computations for, for mirrored surfaces, through several surfaces, in third-order aberrations, paraxial region, path length in fiber optics, pattern-generating surfaces, peak-to-valley (p-v) opd, peaking-up characteristics, pechan prisms, pellicles, penta prisms, pentac anastigmats, perfect optical systems, periscopes, petzval curvature, in cooke triplets, in eyepieces, manual correction of, in meniscus camera *lens*, petzval *lenses*, for photographic objectives, with split elements, petzval sum, petzval surfaces, phase shifts, phase transfer function (ptf), photoelectric effect, photographic density of filters, photographic depth of focus, photographic objectives, afocal attachments, airspaced anastigmats, meniscus anastigmats, petzval *lenses*, reverse telephoto *lenses*, telephoto *lenses*, photographic triplet *lens*, photometry, photopic curve, pincushion distortion, pipes, light, pitch in blocking, plancks law, plane mirrors, plane parallel plates, plane surface reflections, plane waves, plasmat *lenses*, *plastic* cements, *plastic* fibers, *plastic* optical materials, plate glass, ploessl eyepieces, point spread functions (psfs), polarizing materials, polishing, porro prisms, portrait *lenses*, position in image formation, power, in anamorphic systems, in cooke triplet anastigmats, in design, of field *lenses*, of *lenses*, of microscopes, radiated into hemispheres, of searchlights, in telescopes, of two-component systems, precision bevels, precision in computations, presbyopia, pressing, primary aberrations, manual correction of, point spread functions for, principal planes, principal points, principal rays, prisms, achromatic and direct *vision*, in anamorphic systems, designing, dimensions and angles for, diopter, dispersing, erecting systems for, in eyepieces, inversion, minimum deviation of, mounting, penta, plane parallel plates in, polarizing, in rangefinders, reflection from plane surfaces in, rhomboids and beam splitters, right-angle, roof, thin, total internal reflection in, wave fronts affected by, prk technique, projection condensers, projection screens, projection tv objectives, protars, protected glasses, pulfrich refractometers, pupils, and aperture stop, eye, in magnifiers, in optical devices, in telescopes, zones of, purkinje shift, purple optical glass filters, r-biotars, radial energy distribution, radial gradients, radial keratotomy, radial test targets, radiant intensity, radiation, blackbody, glasses for, into hemispheres, reducing, radiometers, radiometry and radiance, blackbody radiation, conservation of, and diffuse sources, and hemispheres, of images, inverse square law for, and lamberts law, spectral, radius in unknown optics analysis, ramsden eyepieces, rangefinders, rapid estimation of blur size, rare earth glasses, ray heights in raytracing, ray refraction at *single* surface, ray slope-index product, rayleigh limit (rl), rayleighs criterion, rays, intercept curves for, through *lenses*, meridional, paraxial raytracing, in aberration measurements, computer effects on, graphical, in optical computations, through several surfaces, for spot diagrams, real angular field of view, real images, rear meniscus camera *lens*, rear projection screens, reciprocal relative dispersion, red optical glass filters, reduction of residual aberrations, reflectance levels of natural sources, reflecting microscope objectives, reflecting systems, bouwers system, conic sections through origins in, ellipsoid and hyperboloid, mangin mirrors, paraboloidal reflectors in, schmidt system, spherical mirrors in, reflection, dielectric, in fiber optics, with immersion *lenses*, in prisms, reflectors, refracting prisms, refraction, equations for, law of, at *single* surface, for skew rays, regions of solution, reinforced waves, relative apertures, relative dispersion, relay systems, replication, *plastics* for, residual aberrations, resistance of optical glass, resolution, of compound microscopes, in diffraction-limited systems, of eyes, in fiber optics, in modulation transfer function, in optical devices, resolution (cont.), of optical systems, tests for, reticles, retina, retrofocus *lenses*, reverse telephoto *lenses*, reversed tessars, rhomboid prisms, right-angle prisms, ritchey-chretien objective, rms (root-mean square) opd, rod-*lens* endoscopes, rods, ronchi grating tests, roof prisms, rough shaping, sagittal coma, sagittal curvature of field, sagittal height, scaling of aberrations, scheimpflug condition, schlieren test, schmidt cameras, schmidt prisms, schmidt systems, blur size estimation in, cassegrains, in reflecting systems, schwarzchild configuration, scotopic curve, scratch and dig specifications, searchlights, second-surface mirrors, secondary spectrum (ss), in achromatic telescope objectives, in diffractive surface design, seidel aberrations, seidel coefficients, selfoc rods, sellmeier dispersion equation, semi-coherent illumination, mtf with, semireflecting mirrors, sensitivity of eyes, separated component systems, seventh-order aberrations, sheet polarizers, short-pass transmission filters, sigmoidoscopes, sign conventions, for mirrored surfaces, for telescopes, simple *lenses*, blur size estimation in, meniscus camera, wave fronts affected by, simple microscopes, simultaneous design techniques, sine wave response, sine-wave targets in mtf, *single*-*lens* elements, blur size estimation in, *single*-*lens* reflex (slr) cameras, *single*-material catadioptric systems, *single*-point diamond turning, *single* refracting elements, blur size estimation in, *single* surface, ray refraction at, *singlet* correctors, size in image formation, skew rays, aspheric surface computations, spherical surface computations, slits in mtf tests, slope angles in paraxial raytracing, snells law of refraction, sonnar anastigmats, spacing, in cooke triplet anastigmats, in design, in microscope objectives, in telescopes, in unknown optics analysis, sparrows criterion, spatial filtering, special glasses, gradient index, infrared transmitting, low-expansion, spectral radiometry, speed of systems, spheres, integrating, spherical aberration, in anastigmats, in blur, computations for, in condenser systems, in cooke triplets, in diffraction-limited systems, in diffractive surface design, in eyepieces, fifth-order, geometric spot size due to, and *lens* shape, manual correction of, in meniscus camera *lens*, spherical aberration (cont.), in optical path difference, in petzval *lenses*, in plane parallel plates, in point spread functions, rayleigh limit in, in reflecting systems, in telescope objectives, third-order, wave aberration polynomial for, spherical gradients, spherical mirrors, spherical reflectors, spherical surfaces, general and skew rays on, spherical test plates, spherochromatism, computations for, in diffractive surface design, in residual aberrations, in telescope objectives, spherometers, spike filters, spinning shoulders, split elements, split-front triplets, split-image rangefinders, split-rear crown double gauss, spot diagrams, spot size due to spherical aberration, spread functions, spreading of gaussian beams, sprenger prisms, spurious resolution, square-wave targets in mtf, star test, statistical combination, stefan-boltzmann law, steinheil form, steradians, stereo *vision*, stokes *lenses*, stop shift equations, stops (see apertures) stray radiation, strehl definition, strehl ratio, styrene *plastic*, subtended angles, superachromat *lenses*, surface curvature in eye, surfaces, diffractive, specifications and tolerances for, in third-order aberration computations, surveying instruments, sweatt model, symmetrical eyepieces, symmetrical principle, synthesis of optical systems (see optical systems design) systems of separated components, t-stops, tangential coma, tangential curvature of field, tangential images, tangential rays and planes, targets in mtf, telecentric stops, telephoto *lenses*, telephoto ratio, telescope systems and eyepieces, brightness in, diopter adjustment of, erector systems, erfle eyepieces, huygenian eyepieces, kellner eyepieces, magnification, magnifiers, objective systems in, orthoscopic eyepieces, power measurements, ramsden eyepieces, rayleigh limit in, symmetrical eyepieces, temperature, in blackbody radiation, and telescope objectives, terrestrial telescopes, tessar anastigmats, test plates, theodolites, thick *lenses*, in cooke triplets, in design, thickness, apparent, of filters, magnification of, thickness (cont.), in paraxial raytracing, in unknown optics analysis, thickness fits, thin elements, thin-edged elements, thin-film computations, thin *lenses*, aberration expressions, blur size estimation in, in image formation, stop shift equations, for telescope objectives, thin prisms, third-order aberrations, in cooke triplets, in diffraction-limited systems, in geometric spot size, in meniscus camera *lenses*, rayleigh limit in, in reflecting systems, in residual aberrations, surface contribution in, thin *lenses*, third-order theory, mm camera objectives, three-dimensional *vision*, three-hole masks, topogon *lens*, toroids, total curvature of thin *lenses*, total emissivity, total internal reflection (tir), transfer equations, transformation temperature in glass, transmission, calculations for, in radiance of images, transmitting diffusers, transverse aberrations, transverse magnification, triangulation rangefinders, trigonometric correction, trigonometric functions, triplet achromats, triplets, with aspheric field correctors, cooke (see cooke triplet anastigmats) truncation, beam, tunnel diagrams, twisting in *lens* mounting, two-component systems, ultraviolet region, undercorrected astigmatism, undercorrected spherical aberrations, underspecification, unfolding prisms, unknown optics analysis, usaf resolution test target, v-number, variable-power systems, velocity of propagation, vernier acuity, vertex length, viewer *lenses*, vignetting, virtual images, visible spectrum, visual acuity, visual centering, visual resolution of microscopes, vitreous humor, waists, warping in *lens* mounting, watts, wave aberration polynomial, wave fronts, aberration, simple *lens* and prism affects on, wavelength, in blackbody radiation, and dispersion, and emissivity, and eye sensitivity, in fiber optics, in radiometry, wide-angle design, wide-angle *lenses*, wide-angle photography, widely airspaced doublets, wiens displacement law, wind-tunnel applications, window glass, wood *lenses*, working f-numbers, wratten ilters, y-ybar diagrams, ynu raytraces, youngs experiment, zeiss protars, zero-power meniscus elements, zonal aberrations, in anastigmats, computations for, in diffractive surface design, with point spread functions, rayleigh limit in, zonal aberrations (cont.), in residual aberrations, in telescope objectives, zones of pupils, zoom systems bibliography: ernst karl abbe george adams george biddell airy alhazen robert day allen giovanni battista amici anders jns angstrm dominique-francois-jean arago jacques babinet roger bacon henry baker james gilbert baker daniel barbaro friedrich johann karl becke max berek jean-baptiste biot alexandre edmond becquerel john billings niels bohr giovanni borelli savile bradbury james bradley william henry bragg tycho brahe john brashear david brewster louis de broglie georges de buffon robert wilhelm bunsen girolamo cardano laurent cassegrain claude chappe pavel alekseyevich cherenkov alvan clark christopher cock nicolaus copernicus marie alfred cornu henri chretien siegfried czapski louis-jacques-mande daguerre leonardo da vinci rene descartes leonard digges john dollond peter dollond christian doppler cornelius drebbel george eastman thomas alva edison albert einstein charles wesley elmer euclid leonhard euler michael faraday pierre de fermat henri fitz armand fizeau jean-bernard-leon foucault jean-baptiste-joseph fourier benjamin franklin joseph von fraunhofer augustin-jean fresnel dennis gabor galileo galilei james gregory robert grosseteste john hadley chester moore hall edmund halley william rowan hamilton james hargreaves edmund hartnack john frederick william herschel william herschel heinrich rudolph hertz james hillier john henry hindle robert hooke christiaan huygens shinya inoue alexander jablonski zacharias janssen michael kasha carl kellner john kerr johannes kepler gustav robert kirchhoff august khler anton kutter edwin herbert land antonie van leeuwenhoek arthur leonard philipp eduard anton lenard johann nathanael lieberkhn hans lippershey joseph jackson lister albertus magnus dmitri dmitrievich maksutov theodore harold maiman marcello malpighi etienne-louis malus etienne-jules marey benjamin martin james clerk maxwell walter mccrone jacob metius albert michelson robert andrews millikan marvin lee minsky erwin mller isaac newton joseph nicephore niepce paul gottlieb nipkow friedrich adolf nobert georges nomarski maurice paul richard scott perkin max planck georg simon plssl maksymilian pluta johan sebastiaan ploem ignazio porro russell porter hugh powell claudius ptolemy john thomas quekett chandrasekhar venkata raman jesse ramsden lord rayleigh johann wilhelm ritter george willis ritchey moritz von rohr ole christensen roemer jean-baptiste rome de l'isle william parsons rosse warren de la rue ernst ruska ernest rutherford angelo sala christoph scheiner bernhard schmid otto schott erwin schrdinger james short henri hureau de senarmont willebrord snell george gabriel stokes jan jacbz swammerdam joseph swan william fox talbot samuel tolansky john tyndall gregorio weber charles wheatstone witelo of silesia william hyde wollaston joseph janvier woodward thomas young carl zeiss frits zernike richard adolph zsigmondy nicolas zucchi atm: rtmc riverside telescope maker's conference stellafane springfield vermont ivan krastev massimo riccardi nils olof carlin john dobson mel bartels stephen tonkin jean texereau adrien millies-lacroix martin tritelwitz richard berry tom waineo cor berrevoets bob lombardi bob may michael lindner jim burrows tom krajci harrie rutten martin van venrooy jan van gastel stathis kafalis guntram lampert mike lockwood peter smith rick scott don clement ukyo chen arjan marvelde aki ltjnen richard ozer vladimir galogaza ken hunter vladimir sacek mark holm michael peck roger ceragioli jim fly dall keller david lewis dawide rowe tomas maruska harold suiter peter abrahams william cook dick suiter david stevick erwin herrig jose sasian heino wolter michael brunn al paslowsoftware, freeware: abcd aberrator ados apart apex apilux asap atmos atmosfringe beam ii iii iv bpm catch code v cyber ray dboptic decad diffract durango enterprise essential macleod film wizard filmstar fred freebmp fresnel fringe gaussopt_ik glad gsolver hohner optic kdp laserwerks lasscad lensforge lensview lightmachinery lightpipes lighttools looking glass lumerical madmax modas multilayer odyssey olive olympios optalix optec optenso opti optica opticad optical base optics lab optics one optikos optikwerks optilayer optis-works optiwave opus oslo paraxia vp pc grate photonics photopia plop radiant raytrace reflectorcad ronchi scatlab scisoft snell solexis solstis speos synopsis tfcalc trace trace tracepro vob winlase winlens zebase zemax registaxperiodicals: photonics spectra design news europhotonics fiber optics online laser focus world lasers and optronics lightwave photonics online photonics spectra oe reports oe magazine sci.optics osa apoma aspe nes/osa spie dgao eos nist bipm bsi din iso ansi cie corm iesna oeosc s & t sky & telescopes sky and telescope sky to night astronomy atmlj amateur astronomy atmlj atm letters journal josa applied opticsmanufacturer: astro-physics celestron meade carl zeiss d & g galaxy intes losmandy nikon nova obsession orion pegasus pentax quantum questar starmaster starsplitter takahashi tasco tele vue tinsley unitron vernonscope vixen zeiss edmund ccientific bentec services ltd. *Single*-Mode Fiber Optics: Principles and Applications, Luc B. Pulse Code Formats for Fiber Optical Data Communication: Basic Principles and Applications, David J. Optical Materials: An Introduction to Selection and Application, Sol-omon Musikant 07.

doe-cad almaz optics cargille cerac chinese glasses cradley-crystals yrystran cvd materials glass bank gradient **lens** grinext grintech hikari **hoya** ioffe kruschwitz lightpath maketech molecular nist nsg ohara pilkington schott sopra spi supplies sumitasundials: sundi dial sundial cadran astrolabe software freeware applet download design plan calculate calculation gnomon nodus style sun solar sunrise sunset moon phase south north coordinates cartesian system distance au position center terms celestial principal plane meridian parallel equator altitude azimuth zenith declination right ascension elevation mean true geometric trigonometry apparent anomaly eccentricity obliquity equator pole ecliptic parallax nutation vector radius orbit astronomical geographical geocentric orthographic horizon horizontal vertical polar declining inclining cylindrical garden stone brass paper equatorial polar west east north south calendar almanac clock angle radian arc grade degree arc-minutes arc-seconds pi hour minute second line date julian gregorian easter day latitude longitude equation time zone sideral universal ephemeris greenwich term armillary analemma analemmatic phenomena solstice equinox shadows magazine journal book picture amateur maker builder designer engraving sculptures stainless steel stone associaation meeus daffet smith sundi ivan krastev british sundial society nass north american sundial society sonnenuhr babylonische italische sonne jahr mez woz zeit uhr wahre ortszeit mitteleuropische mittagslinie zeitzone kurve bifilare deklination siderale zeit quatorialsonnenuhr analemmatische skaphe armillarsphren deklinationslinien gnomonik astronomie sonne sonnenstand slanchev chasovnik Books: 01. Electro-Optic and Acousto-Optic Scanning and Deflection, Milton Gottlieb, Clive L. Infrared Methods for Gaseous Measurements: Theory and Practice, edited by Joda Wormhoudt 08.

Fermann, Almantas Galvanauskas, and Gregg Sucha 81.